Thursday, April 16, 2009

2nd Quater final Chelsea(4)-(4)Liverpool

Alex (right) celebrates his goal with fellow scorer Didier Drogba and Michael Ballack (©Getty Images)

Incredible finish
Six minutes later Liverpool's lead on the night was wiped out as Alex fired in a free-kick with immense power, and Chelsea seemed to have put the issue beyond doubt in the 76th minute when Drogba surged away and Reina could not do enough to keep out Lampard's side-footed shot. Eleven minutes from time Lucas's drive diverted in off Michael Essien and then Kuyt was allowed room to head in Albert Riera's cross. One more goal and Liverpool would be through but instead that went to Chelsea and the inspirational Lampard, the home side's joy tempered only by a second-half booking for Ashley Cole, meaning he will be suspended for the first leg at Barcelona on 28

Friday, April 10, 2009



1. Do you enjoy blogging?
Yes I’m really enjoying blogging. It is because I can give my own opinion and sharing information with others. For example, I can share my favorite football club with others even though there is some people did not like it. (Do you agree with me Sheela??)hihihi

2. Based on your experience what is the benefit of blogging?
Based in my experience, blogging can help bloggers improve their writing skills. Other than that, the writer can be more confident with their writing or giving opinion and let the others read it. I can also share anything with other blogger and communicate with each other. For example, in the chat box corner, the visitors can contact with others or give comment about the blog and those comments then become part of the knowledge shared in the blog.

3. Do you need more assistance to set up your blog?
Yes, I need an assistance to help me set up my blog. For the first time I need someone to teach me how to create a blog account and the layout of the blog. Then, all the setting things and posting, I do it myself.

4. Do you have any memorable/favorite topic in your blog?
Yes. I think all of my group members know my favorite topic. The topic is about the conference at PNB Hotel. The most I remember on that day is the varieties of food and it is hard for me to choose what I want to eat first. This is the most difficult decision that I have to make.

5. List 5 advantages of blogging for you
• blogs allow for a give-and-take
• can give our own opinion
• improve my writing skills
• improve the proficiency level of blogging
• keep track of information about anything that I want to know

6. List 5 disadvantages of blogging
• many blogs are filled with false information
• blog are easy to start and hard to maintain
• Need to keep it constantly updated otherwise you lose potential readers
• Hard to finding the best content among all
• it might take some time to get used to it

7. Will you continue blogging after the course?
Yes because I really enjoy blogging and I can keep improve many things about me.

8. Do you think that blogging improve your writing?
• Yes

9. .Do you think that we should continue with blogging activity for the next batch of students?
• Yes

10. Will you recommend your friend to blog?
• Yes

11. Can you teach a friend to set up his or her blog?
• Yes

Thursday, April 9, 2009

UEFA Quater-finals

Quarter-finals - 08 April 2009 - Anfield - Liverpool - England

Branislav Ivanović is engulfed after equalizing for Chelsea

Didier Drogba's excellent performance is rewarded with a goal

Task 5-Concordance

Hye everyone,
This is the 5th posting for the assignment in this course. For this posting I need to find to articles about concordance and its application in language learning. What benefit concordance will give to language learners?
Firstly, we must understand what concordance is. According from the information that I got in during the lecture, concordance is a list of words in a piece of text or a collection of texts (usually referred to as a corpus). It is also an alphabetical index of the principle words in a book or the works of an author with their immediate context.
The concordance is used for:
▫ comparing different usages of the same word
▫ analyzing keywords
▫ analyzing word frequencies
▫ creating indexes and word lists
From my reading on the article, a concordance is a simple program which allows searching of large text file for words or phrase. It helps determine the appropriate circumstances of use for a word, phrase or construction.

Concordance is being used in many courses for example in language teaching and learning, data mining, literary and linguistic scholarship, and etc.

The concordance gives lots of benefits especially for language learner and teacher. It enables learners to access a piece of text non-sequentially or to study the ways in which it uses language. Concordances are not only used for literary purposes, but also as cross-reference systems for computer programmers, which enable teams of programmers working together to keep track of all references to, for example, a variable name, across all the files which make up a project.

Tuesday, April 7, 2009



UEFA General Secretary David Taylor displays a ballot paper carrying the name of Chelsea FC during the draw for the quarter-finals soccer matches of the Champions League at the UEFA headquarters in Nyon March 20, 2009. The quarter-finals will be played April 7 and 8 and the return legs on April.14 and 15, the semi-finals will be played April 28 and 29, the second legs to be staged May 5 and 6, the final is to be played May 29, 2009 at the Stadio Olimpico in Rome.

Monday, April 6, 2009

task 4-Seminar kebangsaan E-Kom


hye everybody,
This is the 4th posting for the assignment. First of all, thanks to Datin for invite me and my entire friend in group 1 to the PNB Hotel, Darby Park. The conference held on 18-19 Mac 2009. The conference is about the development of ICT among people in rural areas. The topic for this conference is “Merapatkan Jurang Digital”.
There is a lot of intellectual attend the conference. So,i gain a lot of knowledge there. There are several information that i want to share with all.

This topic was presented by a woman from Uitm Penang. It is about the problem among our society on writing.
What is writing apprehension?
Apprehensive writers basically have:
• Negative attitude and perception towards writing-anxiety, fear and worry.
• Perceive writing as a very difficult task-hard to express and elaborate thought and ideas
• Very prejudice toward their own writing performance-believe that they will receive a bad responses and comments from the teacher.
There are several symptoms for the apprehensive writers:
• Hands cramp
• Hate writing
• Mental blocking problem
• Produced shorter essays
• Ideas hardly develop
• Scared to write.
These are happen because of several factors:
• Culture-face saving
• Proficiency level
• Lack of confidence
• Lack role model
• Teachers comment
• Examination

There is also has the information about the student nowadays:
Today Student-Generation Y
Survey of 7705 college student in the U.S published in:
Connecting to the Net Generation: What higher Professional needs to know about: Today Students by Reynal Junco and Jeanna Mastrodicasa (2007)
• 97% own a computer
• 94% own a cell phone
• 76% use instant messaging
• 15% of Im users are logged on 24 hours a day/and 7 day a week
• 34% use website as their primary source of news
• 28% own a blog and 44% read blogs
• 49% download music using peer to peer file sharing
• 75% of student have myspace or other social networking account
• 60% own some type of portable music and/or video device such as iPod

Saturday, March 28, 2009

Earth Hour



Thursday, March 26, 2009


Tuesday, March 24, 2009

Task 3- About Search Engines

Hye guys..

Firstly regarding for this task,I just want to tell to anybody a few information about search engines.Those are including,, and

I think this search engine is the most powerful search engines i ever heard.It is because i feel like using multiple search engines, all at the same time.I got the information from my lecturer,Datin Norizan.This page are the same with ten search engines.All the information that we want are easily can be found and make our job simple.

This is the first search engine that i know.I am also using this kind of search engine to create my email are well known search engine because it is very famous among people that are using the internet to find any information.But it is only using one search engine which means it is not as powerful as
Basicly it is easy to use and very.Even a kid know how to use it.What we have to do is just enter the code that we want to search.

This kind of search engine is also a common and well-known for all of us.It is the same with yahoo.But the diffrence between both page is the way to search it.Before we entering the code,we must put " symbol and also at the end of the code.It is some kind of cheat code i think.The most interesting about this page is it give us more specific about the thing that we want.It make our work more easily and efficient.
Basically i do not know much about this page.From my searching,this page are specifically for education or about language learners.This page are totally different from others because it is more about educational utility.This page are the best for student or teachers to search about educational stuff or for language learners.

I think that's all i want to tell about search engines.If i got more information,I will make another seeyaa on the next posting

Thursday, March 19, 2009

Chelsea (2) vs Stoke City (1)


Task 2-How blogging can assist language learners

I want to say sorry especially for our lecturer,Datin Norizan because doing the posting late.I'm not going to give excuses because i think this is my own fault.
Firstly,i want to share about how blogging can assist language learners...Actually when our lecturer give us the blogging task i feel that this task is difficult.But with my friend's help i manage to create a blog. I think my blog are the simplest for others among my friends.
Okay, lets go back to the task..
In my opinion the most main part is blogging can improve our writing skills. This is because all thing s that we want to tell or share,we must write it in the blog.So, what i'm trying to say is when we write in blog it teach us how to create good sentences and make the reader understand.It can make us think carefully before post an article or comment.With a lot of practices we can improve our writing and can manage to generate a good essay.
Other than that,we can be more confident to write or give idea because in blogging, no one know who we are.These can teach us to generate our self esteem and be more confident with people.
We also indirectly can learn the uses of technology and can gain more knowledge about ESL and sharing information not only among my friends but also with people around the world.It is because all people can read our blog and give comment.So, when i make mistakes they can help me to reduce the mistakes.
And lastly i just want to share several blog that i have know:


That's all for this posting..i will do the next posting...just wait and see..

Task 1- Online Reading

First of all I'm sorry because actually i don't post any task that have been given yet.So this is for the first task.It is all about the football match.For your information this is my favorite football club.Chelsea..I just want to share with all about this club.This club are synonym with blue color.I found this article when i read an NSTP online newspaper.
For your information Guus Hiddink is the new couch for this team after Scolari.
After the replacement this team become more energetic and give rival to other team.
When reading,it give us more information and we can know the development of this club.
Other than that,this club is one of the most powerfull club in English Primier League.
They called it 'the big 4' because there are 4 team which is the most powerfull club in the league.
I'll give you more information about this team in my blog and new story about them..
So that is all i want to share about and wait till i put another information.
enjoy your reading k...

Monday, March 2, 2009

chealsea fc

LONDON: Guus Hiddink insists Chelsea are ready to step up the pressure on Manchester United in the Premier League title race after claiming a third successive victory under the Dutch manager.
Frank Lampard's injury-time winner secured a 2-1 success over Wigan on Saturday that moved Hiddink's side above Liverpool and into second place, seven points adrift of leaders United.

Hiddink concedes the possibility of overhauling Sir Alex Ferguson's side is remote, particularly with Edwin van der Sar on an astonishing run that has seen the United keeper keep a clean sheet in his last 14 league games.

But Chelsea's fortunes have undoubtedly been revived since Hiddink succeeded sacked Brazilian Luiz Felipe Scolari and the manager is refusing to rule out a late season title charge.

"I'm rather realistic, that's to say we have to first win our games, and hopefully a little bit more comfortably than we did here," Hiddink said.
"And then we have to ask Edwin van der Sar if he likes to have this ball in the back of his net. And I know him very well so I don't think he's willing to do so.

"So that means a stable team like Manchester United, let's face the facts, are in a good seat.

"But as long as we have the possibility, as long as it's not decided, we will keep going and that is what we have proven last week at Villa Park and here.

"As long as the team are keeping up this fighting spirit we keep on going for the things that can be reached at the end."

Hiddink admits he has been impressed by the response of his squad during his 10-day reign at Stamford Bridge and singled out skipper John Terry -- the scorer of the first goal against Wigan -- and Lampard for their efforts.

Didier Drogba has also been transformed after being frozen out under Scolari, but the manager insists the Ivorian's improvement is entirely down to the player himself.

Hiddink added: "I hope I said something special to all the players so we can improve.

"I said something to all the team and now and again I say things to individual players on the training pitch or whatever and he reacted very well. I'm not able to judge what was before.

"But any player who is in a big club must motivate themselves. I must not motivate players, the motivation must come from the inside."

Wigan manager Steve Bruce was left frustrated by Lampard's winner that denied his side the opportunity to press their claims for a place in next season's UEFA Cup.

Bruce felt Lampard had pushed Wigan skipper Mario Melchiot as he rose to head the winning goal and claimed that an unfortunate pattern was emerging when his side faced the league's top teams away from home.

The manager said: "In my opinion the referee has made a poor decision. He's only 15 yards away from it. Frank's obviously got his hand on Mario's back, that's what I initially thought and I've just seen it on the television too and it's obvious he's got that one wrong.

"It's gone against us and that's a big shame because the team deserved to get something from the match." -- AFP




Sunday, March 1, 2009

Computer-Assisted Language Learning:

by Mark Warschauer
Until quite recently, computer-assisted language learning (CALL) was a topic of relevance mostly to those with a special interest in that area. Recently, though, computers have become so widespread in schools and homes and their uses have expanded so dramatically that the majority of language teachers must now begin to think about the implications of computers for language learning.
This article provides brief overview of how computers have been used and are being used for language teaching. It focuses not on a technical description of hardware and software, but rather on the pedagogical questions that teachers have considered in using computers in the classroom. For those who want more detailed information on particular applications, a typology of CALL programs (Appendix A) and a list of further CALL resources (Appendix B) is included at the end.
Three Phases of CALL
Though CALL has developed gradually over the last 30 years, this development can be categorized in terms of three somewhat distinct phases which I will refer to as behavioristic CALL, communicative CALL, and integrative CALL (cf. Barson & Debski, in press). As we will see, the introduction of a new phase does not necessarily entail rejecting the programs and methods of a previous phase; rather the old is subsumed within the new. In addition, the phases do not gain prominence one fell swoop, but, like all innovations, gain acceptance slowly and unevenly.
Behavioristic CALL
The first phase of CALL, conceived in the 1950s and implemented in the 1960s and '70s, was based on the then-dominant behaviorist theories of learning. Programs of this phase entailed repetitive language drills and can be referred to as "drill and practice" (or, more pejoratively, as "drill and kill").
Drill and practice courseware is based on the model of computer as tutor (Taylor, 1980). In other words the computer serves as a vehicle for delivering instructional materials to the student. The rationale behind drill and practice was not totally spurious, which explains in part the fact that CALL drills are still used today. Briefly put, that rationale is as follows:
* Repeated exposure to the same material is beneficial or even essential to learning
* A computer is ideal for carrying out repeated drills, since the machine does not get bored with presenting the same material and since it can provide immediate non-judgmental feedback
* A computer can present such material on an individualized basis, allowing students to proceed at their own pace and freeing up class time for other activities
Based on these notions, a number of CALL tutoring systems were developed for the mainframe computers which were used at that time. One of the most sophisticated of these was the PLATO system, which ran on its own special PLATO hardware, including central computers and terminals. The PLATO system included vocabulary drills, brief grammar explanations and drills, and translations tests at various intervals (Ahmad, Corbett, Rogers, & Sussex, 1985).
In the late 1970s and early 1980s, behavioristic CALL was undermined by two important factors. First, behavioristic approaches to language learning had been rejected at both the theoretical and the pedagogical level. Secondly, the introduction of the microcomputer allowed a whole new range of possibilities. The stage was set for a new phase of CALL.
Communicative CALL
The second phase of CALL was based on the communicative approach to teaching which became prominent in the 1970s and 80s. Proponents of this approach felt that the drill and practice programs of the previous decade did not allow enough authentic communication to be of much value.
One of the main advocates of this new approach was John Underwood, who in 1984 proposed a series of "Premises for 'Communicative' CALL" (Underwood, 1984, p. 52). According to Underwood, communicative call:
* focuses more on using forms rather than on the forms themselves;
* teaches grammar implicitly rather than explicitly;
* allows and encourages students to generate original utterances rather than just manipulate prefabricated language;
* does not judge and evaluate everything the students nor reward them with congratulatory messages, lights, or bells;
* avoids telling students they are wrong and is flexible to a variety of student responses;
* uses the target language exclusively and creates an environment in which using the target language feels natural, both on and off the screen; and
* will never try to do anything that a book can do just as well.
Another critic of behavioristic CALL, Vance Stevens, contends that all CALL courseware and activities should build on intrinsic motivation and should foster interactivity--both learner-computer and learner-learner (Stevens, 1989).
Several types of CALL programs were developed and used during this the phase of communicative CALL. First, there were a variety of programs to provide skill practice, but in a non-drill format. Examples of these types of programs include courseware for paced reading, text reconstruction, and language games (Healey & Johnson, 1995b). In these programs, like the drill and practice programs mentioned above, the computer remains the "knower-of-the-right-answer" (Taylor & Perez, 1989, p. 3); thus this represents an extension of the computer as tutor model. But--in contrast to the drill and practice programs--the process of finding the right answer involves a fair amount of student choice, control, and interaction.
In addition to computer as tutor, another CALL model used for communicative activities involves the computer as stimulus (Taylor & Perez, 1989, p. 63). In this case, the purpose of the CALL activity is not so much to have students discover the right answer, but rather to stimulate students' discussion, writing, or critical thinking. Software used for these purposes include a wide variety of programs which may not have been specifically designed for language learners, programs such as SimCity, Sleuth, or Where in the World is San Diego (Healey & Johnson, 1995b).
The third model of computers in communicative CALL involves the computer as tool (Brierley & Kemble, 1991; Taylor, 1980), or, as sometimes called, the computer as workhorse (Taylor & Perez, 1989). In this role, the programs do not necessarily provide any language material at all, but rather empower the learner to use or understand language. Examples of computer as tool include word processors, spelling and grammar checkers, desk-top publishing programs, and concordancers.
Of course the distinction between these models is not absolute. A skill practice program can be used as a conversational stimulus, as can a paragraph written by a student on a word processor. Likewise, there are a number of drill and practice programs which could be used in a more communicative fashion--if, for example, students were assigned to work in pairs or small groups and then compare and discuss their answers (or, as Higgins, 1988, students can even discuss what inadequacies they found in the computer program) In other words, the dividing line between behavioristic and communicative CALL does involves not only which software is used, but also how the software is put to use by the teacher and students.
On the face of things communicative CALL seems like a significant advance over its predecessor. But by the end of the 1980s, many educators felt that CALL was still failing to live up to its potential (Kenning & Kenning, 1990; Pusack & Otto, 1990; Rüschoff, 1993). Critics pointed out that the computer was being used in an ad hoc and disconnected fashion and thus "finds itself making a greater contribution to marginal rather than to central elements" of the language teaching process (Kenning & Kenning, 1990, p. 90).
These critiques of CALL dovetailed with broader reassessments of the communicative approach to language teaching. No longer satisfied with teaching compartmentalized skills or structures (even if taught in a communicative manner), a number of educators were seeking ways to teach in a more integrative manner, for example using task- or project-based approaches . The challenge for advocates of CALL was to develop models which could help integrate the various aspects of the language learning process. Fortunately, advances in computer technology were providing the opportunities to do just that.
Steps toward Integrative CALL: Multimedia
Integrative approaches to CALL are based on two important technological developments of the last decade--multimedia computers and the Internet. Multimedia technology--exemplified today by the CD-ROM-- allows a variety of media (text, graphics, sound, animation, and video) to be accessed on a single machine. What makes multimedia even more powerful is that it also entails hypermedia. That means that the multimedia resources are all linked together and that learners can navigate their own path simply by pointing and clicking a mouse.
Hypermedia provides a number of advantages for language learning. First of all, a more authentic learning environment is created, since listening is combined with seeing, just like in the real world. Secondly, skills are easily integrated, since the variety of media make it natural to combine reading, writing, speaking and listening in a single activity. Third, students have great control over their learning, since they can not only go at their own pace but even on their own individual path, going forward and backwards to different parts of the program, honing in on particular aspects and skipping other aspects altogether. Finally, a major advantage of hypermedia is that it facilitates a principle focus on the content, without sacrificing a secondary focus on language form or learning strategies. For example, while the main lesson is in the foreground, students can have access to a variety of background links which will allow them rapid access to grammatical explanations or exercises, vocabulary glosses, pronunciation information, or questions or prompts which encourage them to adopt an appropriate learning strategy.
An example of how hypermedia can be used for language learning is the program Dustin which is being developed by the Institute for Learning Sciences at Northwestern University (Schank & Cleary, 1995). The program is a simulation of a student arriving at a U.S. airport. The student must go through customs, find transportation to the city, and check in at a hotel. The language learner using the program assumes the role of the arriving student by interacting with simulated people who appear in video clips and responding to what they say by typing in responses. If the responses are correct, the student is sent off to do other things, such as meeting a roommate. If the responses are incorrect, the program takes remedial action by showing examples or breaking down the task into smaller parts. At any time the student can control the situation by asking what to do, asking what to say, asking to hear again what was just said, requesting for a translation, or controlling the level of difficulty of the lesson.
Yet in spite of the apparent advantages of hypermedia for language learning, multimedia software has so far failed to make a major impact. Several major problems have surfaced in regarding to exploiting multimedia for language teaching.
First, there is the question of quality of available programs. While teachers themselves can conceivably develop their own multimedia programs using authoring software such as Hypercard (for the Macintosh) or Toolbook (for the PC), the fact is that most classroom teachers lack the training or the time to make even simple programs, let alone more complex and sophisticated ones such as Dustin. This has left the field to commercial developers, who often fail to base their programs on sound pedagogical principles. In addition, the cost involved in developing quality programs can put them out of the market of most English teaching programs.
Beyond these lies perhaps a more fundamental problem. Today's computer programs are not yet intelligent enough to be truly interactive. A program like Dustin should ideally be able to understand a user's spoken input and evaluate it not just for correctness but also or appropriateness. It should be able to diagnose a student's problems with pronunciation, syntax, or usage and then intelligently decide among a range of options (e.g., repeating, paraphrasing, slowing down, correcting, or directing the student to background explanations).
Computer programs with that degree of intelligence do not exist, and are not expected to exist for quite a long time. Artificial intelligence (AI) of a more modest degree does exist, but few funds are available to apply AI research to the language classroom. Thus while Intelligent CALL (Underwood, 1989) may be the next and ultimate usage of computers for language learning, that phase is clearly a long way down the road.
Multimedia technology as it currently exists thus only partially contributes to integrative CALL. Using multimedia may involve an integration of skills (e.g., listening with reading), but it too seldom involves a more important type of integration--integrating meaningful and authentic communication into all aspects of the language learning curriculum. Fortunately, though, another technological breakthrough is helping make that possible--electronic communication and the Internet.
Steps toward Integrative CALL: The Internet
Computer-mediated communication (CMC), which has existed in primitive form since the 1960s but has only became wide-spread in the last five years, is probably the single computer application to date with the greatest impact on language teaching. For the first time, language learners can communicate directly, inexpensively, and conveniently with other learners or speakers of the target language 24 hours a day, from school, work, or home. This communication can be asynchronous (not simultaneous) through tools such as electronic mail (e-mail), which allows each participant to compose messages at their time and pace, or in can be synchronous (synchronous, "real time"), using programs such as MOOs, which allow people all around the world to have a simultaneous conversation by typing at their keyboards. It also allows not only one-to-one communication, but also one-to-many, allowing a teacher or student to share a message with a small group, the whole class, a partner class, or an international discussion list of hundreds or thousands of people.
Computer-mediated communication allows users to share not only brief messages, but also lengthy (formatted or unformatted) documents--thus facilitating collaborative writing--and also graphics, sounds, and video. Using the World Wide Web (WWW), students can search through millions of files around the world within minutes to locate and access authentic materials (e.g., newspaper and magazine articles, radio broadcasts, short videos, movie reviews, book excerpts) exactly tailored to their own personal interests. They can also use the Web to publish their texts or multimedia materials to share with partner classes or with the general public.
It is not hard to see how computer-mediated communication and the Internet can facilitate an integrative approach to using technology. The following example illustrates well how the Internet can be used to help create an environment where authentic and creative communication is integrated into all aspects of the course.
Students of English for Science and Technology in La Paz Mexico don't just study general examples and write homework for the teacher; instead they use the Internet to actually become scientific writers (Bowers, 1995; Bowers, in press). First, the students search the World Wide Web to find articles in their exact area of specialty and then carefully read and study those specific articles. They then write their own drafts online; the teacher critiques the drafts online and creates electronic links to his own comments and to pages of appropriate linguistic and technical explanation, so that students can find additional background help at the click of a mouse. Next, using this assistance, the students prepare and publish their own articles on the World Wide Web, together with reply forms to solicit opinions from readers. They advertise their Web articles on appropriate Internet sites (e.g., scientific newsgroups) so that interested scientists around the world will know about their articles and will be able to read and comment on them. When they receive their comments (by e-mail) they can take those into account in editing their articles for republication on the Web or for submission to scientific journals.
The above example illustrates an integrative approach to using technology in a course based on reading and writing. This perhaps is the most common use of the Internet to date, since it is still predominantly a text-based medium. This will undoubtedly change in the future, not only due to the transmission of audio-visual material (video clips, sound files) World Wide Web, but also due to the growing use of the Internet to carry out real-time audio- and audio-visual chatting (this is already possible with tools such as NetPhone and CU-SeeME, but is not yet widespread).
Nevertheless, it is not necessary to wait for further technological developments in order to use the Internet in a multi-skills class. The following example shows how the Internet, combined with other technologies, was used to help create an integrated communicative environment for EFL students in Bulgaria--students who until recent years had little contact with the English-speaking world and were taught through a "discrete topic and skill orientation" (Meskill & Rangelova, in press, n.p.). These Bulgarian students now benefit from a high-tech/low-tech combination to implement an integrated skills approach in which a variety of language skills are practiced at the same time with the goal of fostering communicative competence. Their course is based on a collaborative, interpreted study of contemporary American short stories, assisted by three technological tools:
* E-mail communication. The Bulgarian students correspond by e-mail with an American class of TESOL graduate students to explore in detail the nuances of American culture which are expressed in the stories, and also to ask questions about idioms, vocabulary, and grammar. The American students, who are training to be teachers, benefit from the concrete experience of handling students' linguistic and cultural questions .
* Concordancing. The Bulgarian students further test out their hypotheses regarding the lexical and grammatical meanings of expressions they find in the stories by using concordancing software to search for other uses of these expressions in a variety of English language corpora stored on CD-ROM.
* Audio tape. Selected scenes from the stories--dialogues, monologues, and descriptions--were recorded by the American students and provide both listening practice (inside and outside of class) and also additional background materials to help the Bulgarians construct their interpretation of the stories.
These activities are supplemented by a range of other classroom activities, such as in-class discussions and dialogue journals, which assist the students in developing their responses to the stories' plots, themes, and characters--responses which can be further discussed with their e-mail partners in the U.S.
The history of CALL suggests that the computer can serve a variety of uses for language teaching. It can be a tutor which offers language drills or skill practice; a stimulus for discussion and interaction; or a tool for writing and research. With the advent of the Internet, it can also be a medium of global communication and a source of limitless authentic materials.
But as pointed out by Garrett (1991), "the use of the computer does not constitute a method". Rather, it is a "medium in which a variety of methods, approaches, and pedagogical philosophies may be implemented" (p. 75). The effectiveness of CALL cannot reside in the medium itself but only in how it is put to use.
As with the audio language lab "revolution" of 40 years ago, those who expect to get magnificent results simply from the purchase of expensive and elaborate systems will likely be disappointed. But those who put computer technology to use in the service of good pedagogy will undoubtedly find ways to enrich their educational program and the learning opportunities of their students.
Appendix A:
A Typology of CALL Programs and Applications[1]
Computer as Tutor
CALL Programs designed for teaching grammar include drill and practice on a single topic (Irregular Verbs, Definite and Indefinite Articles), drills on a variety of topics (Advanced Grammar Series, English Grammar Computerized I and II), games (Code Breaker, Jr. High Grade Builder), and programs for test preparation (50 TOEFL SWE Grammar Tests) Grammar units are also included in a number of comprehensive multimedia packages (Dynamic English, Learn to Speak English Series).
This category includes programs which are specifically designed to promote second-language listening (Listen!), multi-skill drill and practice programs (TOEFL Mastery), multimedia programs for second language learners (Accelerated English, Rosetta Stone), and multimedia programs for children or the general public (Aesop's Fables, The Animals).
Pronunciation programs (Sounds American, Conversations) generally allow students to record and playback their own voice and compare it to a model. Several comprehensive multimedia programs (Firsthand Access, The Lost Secret) include similar features.
This category includes reading programs designed for ESL learners (Reading Adventure 1 - ESL) and tutorials designed for children or the general public (MacReader, Reading Critically, Steps to Comprehension). and games (HangWord). Also included are more general educational programs which can assist reading (Navajo Vacation, The Night Before Christmas) and text reconstruction programs (see below).
Text Reconstruction
Text reconstruction programs allow students to manipulate letters, words, sentences, or paragraphs in order to put texts together. They are usually inexpensive and can be used to support reading, writing, or discussion activities. Popular examples include Eclipse, Gapmaster, Super Cloze, Text Tanglers, and Double Up.
This category includes drill and practice programs (Synonyms), multimedia tutorials (English Vocabulary), and games (Hangman, Scrabble). Also useful are several reference and searching tools (such as concordancers) which will be described in the Computer as Tool section below.
Most software for supporting writing falls under the Computer as Tool category (see below). Exceptions include tutorials such as Sentence Combining, SentenceMaker, and Typing Tutor.
A number of comprehensive multimedia programs are designed to teach ESL students a variety of skills. They range in price but many are quite expensive. Among the better known are Dynamic English, Ellis Mastery, English Discoveries, Rosetta Stone.
Computer as Stimulus
The computer as stimulus category includes software which is used not so much as a tutorial in itself but to generate analysis, critical thinking, discussion, and writing. Of course a number of the above-mentioned programs (e.g., The Animals, Navajo Vacation, Night Before Christmas) can be used as a stimulus. Especially effective for a stimulus are programs which include simulations. Examples of this latter group include London Adventure, Oregon Trail, SimCity, Sleuth, Crimelab, Amazon Trail, Cross Country Canada/USA, and Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?
Computer as Tool
Word Processing
The most common use of computer as tool, and probably the most common use overall of the computer for language learning, is word processing. High quality programs like Microsoft Word can be useful for certain academic or business settings (Healey & Johnson, 1995a). Programs such as ClarisWorks and MicrosoftWorks are cheaper and simpler to learn and still have useful features. SimpleText and TeachText are simpler yet and may be sufficient for many learners.
Grammar Checkers
Grammar checkers (e.g., Grammatik) are designed for native speakers and they typically point to problems believed typical of native speaker writing (e.g., too much use of passives). They are usually very confusing to language learners and are not recommended for an ESL/EFL context.
Concordancing software searches through huge files of texts (called corpora, which is the plural of corpus) in order to find all the uses of a particular word (or collocation). While very confusing for beginners, concordancers can be a wonderful tool for advanced students of language, linguistics, or literature.
The best concordancer for language students and teachers is Oxford's MicroConcord. The program includes as an optional extra several large (total 1,000,000 words) taken from British newspapers. Or this program, and other concordancers as well, can be used with any other text files available in electronic form.
Collaborative Writing
A number of tools exist to help students work on their writing collaboratively on computers linked in a local area network. The most popular among language teachers is Daedalus Integrated Writing Environment, which includes modules for real-time discussion, word processing, electronic mail, and brainstorming, as well as citation software and a dictionary. Other programs with some similar features are Aspects and MacCollaborator.
There are numerous CD versions of encyclopedias and dictionaries. Two which have highly recommended (Healey & Johnson, 1995a) for language learners are the encyclopedia ENCARTA and the Longman Dictionary of American English.
The three most popular uses of the Internet for language teaching are electronic mail (e-mail), the World Wide Web, and MOOs. Numerous programs exist for using electronic mail. The Eudora program has several nice features, including "point-and-click" word processing capacity, easy attachment of formatted files, and ability to include foreign characters and alphabets. The free version (Eudora Light) is suitable for most purposes; there is also a more powerful commercial version (Eudora Pro).
Eudora requires a direct connection to the Internet. Additional programs which run through the unix system and do not require a direct Internet connection are Pine and Elm.
To access the World Wide Web, one needs a special program called a browser. By far the most popular browser among educators is Netscape, which until now has been free to teachers and students.
MOOs ("Multiple-user-domains Object Oriented") allow for real time communication, simulation, and role playing among participants throughout the world, and a special MOO has been set up for ESL teachers and students (schmOOze University homepage, 1995). The use of MOOs is greatly facilitated if one uses a special client software program such as TinyFugue (for unix), MUDDweller (for Mac), or MUDwin (for Windows).
Authoring allows teachers to tailor software programs either by inserting new texts or by modifying the activities. Authoring runs on a spectrum from set programs which allow slight modification (e.g., inclusion of new texts) to complex authoring systems.
Many of the programs listed earlier (e.g., MacReader, Eclipse, Gapmaster, Super Cloze, Text Tanglers, and Double Up) allow teachers to insert their own texts and thus make the programs more relevant to their own lessons (and greatly extend their shelf life too). By allowing the students themselves to develop and insert the texts, the programs can be made even more communicative and interactive.
On the other end of the spectrum, authoring systems allow teachers to design their own multimedia courseware. These can take a lot of time and effort to master, and are most often used by true enthusiasts. Some are specifically designed for language teachers (CALIS, DASHER), others for educators (Digital Chiseler) and others for the general public (Hypercard, Hyperstudio, Supercard, Toolbook, Macromind Director).
Appendix B:
Additional CALL Resources
Selected Books
Athelstan. (1995). Technology and language learning yearbook, vol. 6. Houston, TX: Athelstan.
Dunkel, P. (Ed.). (1991). Computer-assisted language learning and testing: Research issues and practice. New York, NY: Newbury House.
Hardisty, D., & Windeatt, S. (1989) CALL. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Healey, D. (1995). Something to do on Tuesday Houston: Athelstan.
Healey, D., & Johnson, N. (Ed.). (1995). 1995 TESOL CALL interest section software list. Alexandria, VA: TESOL Publications.
Higgins, J. (1988). Language, learners and computers. London: Longman.
Jones, C., & Fortescue, S. (1987). Using computers in the language classroom. London: Longman.
Kenning, M.-M., & Kenning, M. J. (1990). Computers and language learning: Current theory and practice. New York: Ellis Horwood.
Pennington, M. (Ed.). (1989). Teaching languages with computers: The state of the art. La Jolla, CA: Athelstan.
Schank, R. C., & Cleary, C. (1995). Engines for education. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Taylor, M. B., & Perez, L. M. (1989). Something to do on Monday La Jolla, CA: Athelstan.
Thompson, J, & Parsons, J. (1995). ReCALL software guide #4, 1995. Hull, UK: CIT Centre for Modern Languages, University of Hull.
Tribble, C., & Jones, G. (1990). Concordances in the classroom. Harlow: Longman.
Warschauer, M. (1995a). E-mail for English teaching. Alexandria, VA: TESOL Publications.
Warschauer, M. (Ed.) (1995b). Telecollaboration in foreign language learning. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center (University of Hawaii Press).
Warschauer, M. (Ed.) (1996). Virtual connections: Online activities and projects for networking language learners. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center (University of Hawaii Press).
CALICO Journal
Duke University
014 Language Center, Box 90267
Durham, NC 27708-0267 U.S.A.
Computer-Assisted English Language Learning Journal
1787 Agate St.,
Eugene OR 97403 U.S.A.
Computer Assisted Language Learning
P.O. Box 825
2160 SZ Lisse
The Netherlands
Computers and Composition
Department of Humanities
Michigan Technological University
Houghton, MI 49931 U.S.A.
Language Centre
Bond University
Gold Coast
Queensland 4229
ReCALL Newsletter (available on the World Wide Web)
Elsevier Science Ltd, The Boulevard
Langford Lane
Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1 GB, UK
TESL-EJ (available on the World Wide Web)
North America:
Electronic Mail Lists
EST-L (Teachers of English for S